Nutrition Nibbles from Nan...

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease:

Bean, Fiber, Legume and Soy Bean
In studying 9,632 men and women who participated in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, over an average of 19 years of follow-up, 1,802 incident cases of coronary heart disease and 3,680 incident cases of cardiovascular disease were discovered. Legume (bean) consumption was significantly and inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease after adjusting for established cardiovascular risk factors. Legume consumption 4 times or more per week compared with less than once a week was associated with a 22% lower risk of coronary heart disease. There are a variety of constituents in legumes that may contribute to their protective effects.

Soy bean protein has been shown to reduce serum total and LDL cholesterol levels. Legume intake other than soy bean has been associated with reductions in serum cholesterol in clinical trials, probably due to their high soluble fiber content. A half cup of cooked beans contains, on average, 6 g of total fiber and 2 g of soluble fiber, which is more total fiber than the same amount of soluble fiber that is contained in one third cup of dry oat bran. Soluble fiber has been associated with reduced cholesterol levels and reduced risk of coronary heart disease, as well as improved glycemic control. Legumes are a major source of folic acid, which may help lower homocysteine levels.

"Legume Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in US Men and Women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study," Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, et al. Arch Intern Med, November 26, 2001;!61 .-2573-2578.

Prostate Cancer:

In studying 32 male patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate who consumed a diet for 3 weeks which included 200 g (about 3/4 cup) of spaghetti sauce each day, oxidative DNA damage in prostate tissue at the end of this study was 28% lower than in specimens from 7 patients who did not consume the spaghetti sauce, and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were reduced by 18% with the spaghetti sauce consumption.

Evans J, Family Practice News, March 15, 2002:9. 39096B


Olive Oil and Phenol
Ten patients with combined hyperlipidemia (mean plasma cholesterol 281 mg/dl, triglycerides 283 mg/dl) consumed a low fat, low cholesterol diet with olive oil at 20 g/day as the only added fat, with no other drug or vitamin supplement for 6 weeks, and then replaced the normal olive oil used with extra virgin olive oil for 4 weeks. It was found that extra virgin olive oil did not affect fatty acid composition of LDL but significantly reduced the copper induced formation of LDL hydroperoxides and lipoperoxidation end products, as well as the depletion of LDL linoleic and arachidonic acid.

Daily intake of extra virgin olive oil in hyperlipidemic patients may reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation, not only due to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content but also to the antioxidative activity of its phenolic compounds.

"Effects of Dietary Virgin Olive Oil Phenols on Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation in Hyperlipidemic Patients," Masella R, BJ GiovanniniC, VariR, etal, Lipids, November 2001:36(11):1195-1202. gj[

Diabetes Mellitus:

In evaluating 258 veterans who were between 29 and 99 years of age and were type 2 diabetics, patients who did not exercise had an odds ratio of 2.71 for poor diabetic control compared with patients who exercised.

Pigman HT. Gun DX, Krousel-Wood MA, South Med J, January 2002; 95 (I): 72- 77. 38845

In evaluating 3,234 non diabetic individuals who had elevated fasting and post load plasma glucose levels, a lifestyle modification program that involved a minimal 7% weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week reduced the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 58% compared with metformin at 850 mg, 2 times a day, which resulted in a 31% reduction compared with placebo.

Knowler WC, Barreti-Connor E, et al, N England JMed, February 7. 2002:346(6): 393-403. 38848

Nan Borchardt
Nan Borchardt, RD,LD,CDE
NutritionWerks, Inc., President

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